By L. Beranek
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Extra resources for Acoustical Measurements (rev.)
T x .... 8 Input-Output relationship of a sensor showing hysteresis Consider the sensor with zero input. The expected input-output situation is depicted by point O. Starting from here if we increase the input, the output increases until point A. Thereafter output follows changes in input, as long as input is increased monotonically - this is represented by the segment OABP of the characteristic and indicated by the arrows on the characteristic. At point P, the input stops increasing and decreases - again monotonically; the portion PQRS represents this portion of Characteristics of an Instrumentation Scheme 15 the characteristic.
We do not intend to dwell into them here. => Many schemes incorporate some level of data logging and user friendly and meaningful displays. => Advent of DSPs has added a new dimension to the schemes. One is able to extract information from the streams of signal samples. , are typical examples of these. Control strategy and other decision-making processes can be based on such information. AC Amplifier Single ended amplifier DC Amplifier Narrowband Wideband Chopper amplifier Buffer Instrumentation amplifier Difference amplifier Type of processing Category Low loading of source.
One yardstick is the precision of the measurement itself. The loading has to be so low that the change in the magnitude of the physical variable being measured will be smaller than the precision level expected (at least by one order). If the sensed quantity were an electrical voltage, we say that the 'input impedance has to be as high as possible'. 12. The physical variable being sensed is represented by its equivalent circuit - of ideal voltage source Vs and internal resistance Rs across terminals A and B.
Acoustical Measurements (rev.) by L. Beranek