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Download PDF by Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund: Absolute X-Ray Wave-Length Measurements

By Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund

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Eventually a radical break may be needed, with the new standard run independently, in parallel with the old system. An interesting modification of this strategy is to use a niche market to provide an ‘avenue of entry’ into the main market. The firm may develop a product for a specialist niche, and use the installed base to leverage out the standard into the main market. In this way the technological base of CD has made it easier to establish CD-ROM spin-offs, and the VHS standard for VCR has given VHS-C a built-in advantage for camcorders.

Typically a firm adopts an external standard only because it has most chance of being agreed to by other manufacturers and wants to avoid a contest, even though it would prefer its own standard to be established. This is a ‘battle of the sexes’ game, in which the important outcome is that players agree to consistent strategies (one leads and the others follow) rather than fight. The essence of the coordination problem is reaching this agreement equilibrium, either by negotiation, alliance formation, or market competition.

It may also have to pay licence fees. However, this may be the only choice other than withdrawal from the market. An added factor is that the firm must make an absorption effort to incorporate the outside standard into its design and will be less able to assume any technical leadership. There are some positive aspects. The standard may be proven and the firm may be able to survive on manufacturing and marketing ability. There may be room for a niche overlooked by the leader; this may be a foothold for further product development.

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Absolute X-Ray Wave-Length Measurements by Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund


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